Samsung Medical Center

Sung Kyan Kwan University
(135-710) 50 Irwon-Dong
Seoul, Korea
Phone: +82-2-3410-3490
Fax: +82-2-3410-0048
Website :

Yonsei Medical Center

Seoul, Korea
Tel : +82-2-361-6203
Fax: +82-2-393-9979

Seoul National University

Seoul, Korea
Tel : +82-2-760-2874
Fax : +82-2-744-8459

Kyung Hee University Hospital

Seoul, Korea
Tel : +82-2-967-3971
Fax : +82-2-960-4524
Website :

Asan Medical Center

388-1 Pungnap 2 Dong,
Seoul 138-736
Tel : + 82-2-3010-7941
Fax: + 82-2-3010-7940

Inje University Paik Hospital

Pusan, Korea 
Phone: +82-51-890-6884
Fax: +82-51-891-4282 

Website :

Centre National de Rehabilitation et de Neurosciences Hospital des Specialites O.N.O

Rabat, Morocco  
Tel  : ++212537775648, 212537775706
Fax:  ++212537775573

IBN Al-Haytham Hospital

Amman, Jordan
Tel : +962-6-695564
Fax: +962-6-5682-706

Centre National de Rehabilitation et de Neurosciences Hospital des Specialites O.N.O

Rabat, Morocco 
Tel  : ++212537775648, 212537775706

Fax: +212537775573

150th P.L.A. Central Hospital


Tel : +86-379-431-2554
Fax : +86-379-491-1553

Hebei Provincial People’s Hospital

348 He Ping Xi Lu, Xin Hua District
Shi Jia Zhuang,
Hebei 050011

Tel : +86-311-705-3323
Fax: +86-311-705-3302

Zhong Shan Medical University

3rd Affiliated Hospital in Guangzhou,
Tel : +86-20-87500295

Liu Hua Qiao Hospital

Tel : +86-20-669-4030
Fax: +86-020-86669222

Gaungzhou Gamma Knife Treatment & Research Center

Tel  : +86-20-432-0603
Fax : +86-20-432-0603

Xiang Ya Gamma Knife Center

Chang Sha, China
Tel :  +86-731-432-7467
Fax:  +86-731-432-7476

Beijing Neurosurgical Institute

Beijing, China
Tel : +86-10-670-33-678
Fax: +86-10-670-14-206

Gamma Knife Centre Hong Kong

Canossa Hospital
No 1 Old Peak Road,
Hong Kong.
Tel : +852-2522-2332
Fax : +852-2522-2663
Web :

Swedish Adds Seven New Doctors to its Medical Staff

SEATTLE –  Swedish, one of the region’s largest and most comprehensive non-profit health-care providers, today announced the addition of seven new doctors to its growing medical staff. Angie Song, M.D., FACS, who specializes in facial plastic surgery, will join Swedish Otolaryngology Specialists. Six new doctors will join the Swedish Neuroscience Institute including Lina Fine, M.D., a sleep and neuro-psychiatrist; Lee Liou, M.D., a neurologist specializing in general neurology and neuromuscular disease; Amer Malik, M.D., a neuro-hospitalist focused on stroke; Pavle Repovic, M.D., PhD., who will join the Multiple Sclerosis Center; Ednea Simon, M.D., who specializes in epilepsy and pediatric neurology; and Ron Young, M.D., who will lead the GammaKnife Radiosurgery Program.

“Swedish is pleased to welcome Drs. Fine, Liou, Malik, Repovic, Simon, Song and Young to our respected medical staff of more than 2,000 providers throughout the region,” said Cal Knight, Swedish’s chief operating officer. “The addition of the new team members to the Swedish Neuroscience Institute and the otolaryngology group allows us to provide new treatments and expanded services to more patients.”

DR. LINA FINE, who has joined the Swedish Neuroscience Institute, specializes in sleep medicine and neuropsychiatry. She has conducted extensive research on insomnia, neuropharmacology and neurochemistry. Dr. Fine has been given many prestigious awards including the Coopers Fellowship Award for Young Scientists of the Future, Harvard College Scholarship, University of Milan Fellowship, Churchill Scholarship for Cambridge Univeristy and Sackler School of Medicine Scholarship.

Dr. Fine received her medical degree from the Tel Aviv University Sackler School of Medicine in 2003. She previously attended Cambridge, Harvard and Cornell Universities. Dr. Fine is certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. Her post-graduate training includes a sleep medicine and neurophysiology fellowship at the Center for Sleep Medicine and a neuropsychiatry residency at New York Presbyterian Hospital.

DR. LEE LIOU, who specializes in General Neurology and neuromuscular disease, will join the Swedish Neuroscience Institute as an outpatient clinician and hospitalist. Dr. Liou’s distinguished career includes receiving the Katherine Carter Award in Scientific Writing, the Chinese American Citizens Alliance Scholarship and the Chinese American Faculty Association Scholarship.

Dr. Liou earned his medical degree from the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Mich. in 2003. He earned his doctorate in biochemistry and molecular biology from the University of California Los Angeles in 1999 at the relatively young age of 22. Dr. Liou’s residency was in neurology at the University of Washington. Most recently, Dr. Liou concluded his fellowship in clinical neuromuscular/EMG and translational research at the University of Washington.

DR. AMER MALIK, a neuro-hospitalist focused on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke care, joins the Swedish Neuroscience Institute Stroke Program. Dr. Malik received his medical degree from the University of Maryland School of Medicine in 2005 while also obtaining an MBA in health care management and finance in 2004. He completed his neurology residency at the University of Utah School of Medicine in 2009, when he was awarded the Neurology Resident Teacher of the Year Award for 2008-2009. Most recently, Dr. Malik completed his vascular neurology fellowship at the UPMC Stroke Institute at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. He is a member of several professional societies including the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology, the American Heart Association / American Stroke Association, and the American Academy of Neurology.

DR. PAVLE REPOVIC joins the Multiple Sclerosis Center at the Swedish Neuroscience Institute. Dr. Repovic, a fellow at the Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for Multiple Sclerosis at the Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York, is certified as a diplomat of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. He was awarded a Sylvia Lawry Fellowship from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

Dr. Repovic graduated from the University of Alabama at Birmingham in 2004 where he attended the combined M.D./Ph.D. program. He completed his neurology residency at New York Presbyterian Hospital in 2008. Dr. Repovic’s doctoral thesis work was centered on the sources and functions of Oncostatin-M, a specific protein, in the central nervous system.

DR. EDNEA SIMON joins the Epilepsy and Pediatric Neurology team at the Swedish Neuroscience Institute. Dr. Simon is a member of the American Epilepsy Society, the Child Neurology Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Her research experience includes research fellowship in functional neuroimaging and basic research in post-traumatic epilepsy.

Dr. Simon earned her medical degree from the State University of Campinas School of Medicine in Brazil. She is certified in neurology with special qualification in child neurology by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology in June 2007. Her extensive clinical training includes a mini fellowship in pediatric epilepsy, fellowship in clinical neurophysiology, residency in child neurology, clinical fellowship in child neurology and residency in pediatrics.

DR. ANGIE SONG has joined Swedish Otolaryngology Specialists, which provides comprehensive care to patients with diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat and related structures. Dr. Song is a board certified otolaryngology head and neck surgeon, as well as a facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon. She is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons and American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Dr. Song received her medical degree from George Washington University School of Medicine in 1993. She previously worked at the Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Wash. as an otolaryngology resident and at the Lasky Clinic in Beverly Hills, Calif. as a facial plastic and reconstructive surgery fellow.

DR. RON YOUNG, a nationally recognized pioneer in the use of GammaKnife for benign conditions, will open and lead the new Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Program at the Swedish Neuroscience Institute. With more than 37 years of experience in both private practice and academic environments, Dr. Young was the director of the Gamma Knife Center at Northwest Hospital for 17 years and has served as head of neurosurgery at the University of California Irvine as well as a professor at the University of California Los Angeles. He also has expertise in Deep Brain Stimulation.

Dr. Young earned his medical degree from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1965. He completed a straight surgical internship at the University of Minnesota Hospital and his residency in neurosurgery at VA Hospital, Long Beach, Calif., and at the State University of New York Medical Center in Syracuse, New York.

About Swedish
Established in 1910, Swedish has grown over the last 100 years to become the largest, most comprehensive non-profit health provider in the Greater Seattle area. It is comprised of three hospital campuses – First Hill, Cherry Hill and Ballard – a freestanding emergency department and ambulatory care center in Issaquah, Swedish Visiting Nurse Services, and the Swedish Physician Division – a network of more than 40 primary-care and specialty clinics located throughout the Puget Sound area. In fall 2009, Swedish broke ground on a new medical office building and hospital in the Issaquah Highlands, as well as an emergency department and medical office building in Ballard. More recently, Swedish announced plans to open freestanding emergency department and ambulatory care center facilities in Mill Creek and Redmond. In addition to general medical and surgical care, Swedish is known as a regional referral center, providing specialized treatment in areas such as cardiovascular care, cancer care, neuroscience, orthopedics, high-risk obstetrics, pediatric specialties, organ transplantation and clinical research. For more information, visit and

Symptoms of Brain Tumor

by Madden Baines

Brain tumor symptoms varies based on on the person and their exact situation. Various factors of the tumor will influence the symptoms of the brain tumors rests on a nerve or damages a certain area of the brain. They also may be caused when the brain swells or fluid builds up within the skull.
The most common symptom of a brain tumor:


Headaches are a usual initial symptom. Typical "brain tumor headaches" are often described as worse in the morning, with improvement step by step during the day. They may arouse the individual from sleep. Sometimes, upon awakening, the individual vomits then feels better. These headaches may worsen with coughing, exercise, or with a change in position such as bending or kneeling. They also do not typically respond to the general headache remedies.


One-third of people diagnosed with a brain tumor are not aware they have a tumor until they have a seizure. Seizures are a regular reaction of a brain tumor. Seizures are caused by a disruption in the normal flow of electricity in the brain. Those unexpected bursts of electricity may cause convulsions, irregular sensations, and loss of consciousness. Focal seizures, such as muscle twitching or jerking of an arm or leg, abnormal smells or tastes, problems with speech or numbness and tingling, may also occur.

Mental and | or Personality Changes

These can range from complications with memory (especially short-term memory), speech, communication and / or concentration changes to harsh intellectual problems and confusion. Changes in behavior, temperament and personality may also occur, based on where the tumor is located. These changes can be caused by the tumor itself, by a rise in pressure within the skull caused by the presence of the tumor, or by involvement of the parts of the brain that control personality.

Focal, or Localized, Symptoms

In addition to the regular, but non-specific reactions listed above, other more specific reactions frequently occur. These "focal symptoms" can help identifythe location of the tumor. Focal symptoms include: hearing problems such as ringing or buzzing sounds or hearing loss, decreased muscle control, lack of coordination, decreased sensation, weakness or paralysis, difficulty with walking or speech, balance problems, or double vision.

Nausea and Vomiting

As with headaches, these are non-focal, which means that most people who have nausea and vomiting do NOT have a brain tumor. Nausea and/ or vomiting is more likely to result in a brain tumor if it is accompanied by the other symptoms associated with a brain tumor.

Behavioral and cognitive problems

Many individuals havebehavioral and cognitive changes, such as: problems with recent memory, inability to concentrate or finding the right words, acting out - no patience or tolerance, and loss of inhibitions - saying or doing things that are not appropriate for the situation.
If you find yourself developing any of these symptoms, feel free to consult your doctor and explain that you feel that you are experiences reactions related to a brain tumor. Don’t be left in the dark.

Please visit these links for more information on Symptoms of Brain Tumor and Brain Tumor Symptoms.

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My Stereotactic Radiosurgery Journey

Gamma knife radiosurgery for movement disorders: a concise review of the literature

Ameer L Elaimy email, Benjamin J Arthurs email, Wayne T Lamoreaux email, John J Demakas email, Alexander R MacKay email, Robert K Fairbanks email, David R Greeley email, Barton S Cooke email and Christopher M Lee email
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 2010, 8:61doi:10.1186/1477-7819-8-61

 Abstract (provisional)

Medication is the predominant method for the management of patients with movement disorders. However, there is a fraction of patients who experience limited relief from pharmaceuticals or experience bothersome side-effects of the drugs. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and surgical lesioning of the thalamus and basal ganglia are respected neurosurgical procedures, with valued success rates and a very low incidence of complications. Despite these positive outcomes, DBS and surgical

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

 Definitions & clinical picture:

The characteristic features of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are the presence of obsessions and compulsions which interfere with the patient’s ability to cope with their daily life.

Obsessions: are unpleasant or distressing thoughts, images or impulses that come to mind over and over again despite conscious efforts to stop them. We all become preoccupied by particular thoughts at times, or have the experience of an irritating tune running again and again through the mind. These normal thought processes are distinguished from obsessional thoughts because it is possible to distract oneself by thinking or doing something else, and because the thoughts do not interfere with normal functioning. In OCD obsessional thoughts are rarely this innocuous. Common themes for the thoughts include violence, sex, contamination and blasphemy. Obsessional images may be of violent or gory scenes that come vividly to mind again and again, and cannot be ignored or suppresses. An obsessional impulse might be a recurrent impulse to hurt someone, usually someone the sufferer would not consciously wish to hurt. For example, a man might have the obsessional impulse to stab his wife, despite having no wish to harm her and finding the impulse distressing. It is uncommon for people to act on obsessional impulses. It is important to distinguish obsessional thoughts from thought insertion, a first rank symptoms of schizophrenis, in which the patient believes they are experiencing thoughts that are not their own. In contrast, obsessional thoughts are always recognized as arising from the patient’s own mind (ego-syntonic vs. ego-dystonic).

Compulsions: are the behavioural counterparts of obsessions, with a strong urge to perform an action or complex serious of actions (overt or covert) repeatedly, even though they are recognized as unnecessary. Compulsions can often be resisted for a short periods, but that can only be relieved by performing the compulsive act. Compulsions can take very many forms, but the commonest are:

Trigeminal Neuralgia Treatment In India -Low Cost Trigeminal Neuralgia

A Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also called tic douloureux, is a condition that is characterized by intermittent, shooting pain in the face……

Causes of Trigeminal Neuralgia
Pressure of a blood vessel on the root of the trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal neuralgia can occur as a result of aging, or it can be related to multiple sclerosis or a similar disorder that damages the myelin sheath protecting certain nerves Pressure of a tumor on the trigeminal nerve (rare)……

Symptoms Symptoms of Trigeminal Neuralgia
The episodes of pain occur paroxysmally, or suddenly.The electric shock-like pain generally is on one side of the face and is spasmodic, coming in short bursts lasting a few seconds…..

Diagnosis of Trigeminal Neuralgia
Trigeminal neuralgia usually is diagnosed based on the patient’s description of the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to determine whether a tumor or multiple sclerosis is irritating the trigeminal nerve…..

Radiation Therapist Named Manager of Radiation Oncology Services

Kyongah Hwang has been named manager of South Nassau's Center for Comprehensive Radiation Services and Long Island Gamma Knife® Center. She previously served as a senior radiation therapist at Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ.
PRLog (Press Release)Jul 07, 2010 – South Nassau Communities Hospital recently named Kyongah Hwang manager of its Center for Comprehensive Radiation Services and Long Island Gamma Knife® Center.  Ms. Hwang previously served as a senior radiation therapist at the prestigious Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ.

"South Nassau’s radiation oncology program continues to grow rapidly to meet the needs of the patients and the communities," said Edward Mullen, MD, director of radiation oncology and co-medical director of Long Island Gamma Knife®.  “Kyongah has the expertise and experience that will help us build on our high standards and improve on the services and care that we provide.”

Ms. Hwang’s responsibilities include initiating performance improvement strategies for patients, physician, and staff satisfaction; research and deployment of new radiation therapy technologies; updating technical policies and procedures; and spearheading the department’s accreditation process with organizations such as the American College of Radiology and The Joint Commission.

A certified radiation therapist by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists, Ms. Hwang earned a Master of Business Administration specializing in health systems management from Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck, NJ, and a Bachelor of Science in Radiation Therapy Technology from Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY.

South Nassau’s Center for Comprehensive Radiation Services is accredited by the American College of Radiology (ACR).  The prestigious ACR accreditation includes on-site surveys and evaluations conducted by board-certified physicians and medical physicists who are experts in radiation oncology.  The center recently introduced the Varian Novalis Tx, the medical industry’s most advanced radiosurgery system.  The system delivers fast, precise, noninvasive radiosurgical treatments for the array of malignant cancers and benign lesions, including brain, prostate, lung, spine, and liver; previously irradiated sites and arteriovenous malformations.

In addition to South Nassau, the Novalis Tx is used by leading academic institutions and regional medical centers, including Duke University, UCLA, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute,and the Henry Ford Health System.  The system incorporates two complementary imaging systems: an in-room X-ray imaging system providing real-time imaging and fine-tuning that ensures that the targeted lesion is aligned with the treatment beam during treatment and a cone-beam CT imaging system that generates a 3-D image of the targeted lesion and surrounding tissues, so clinicians can see the precise location and shape of the tumor, fine-tune the patient's position, and make sure that the internal anatomy has not shifted or changed prior to treatment.

As part of its advanced diagnostic and radiation oncology technologies and treatments, the center also includes the following services:

South Nassau Long Island Gamma Knife Center (Oceanside).  The Gamma Knife is a powerful radiosurgery tool that is the treatment of choice for deep-seated brain abnormalities, including tumors that would otherwise be considered inoperable.  

South Nassau’s Center for Prostate Health (Oceanside).  In addition to prostate brachytherapy, radiosurgery using the Novalis Tx, external beam radiation, hormone therapy and watchful waiting, the program now offers minimally-invasive, robotic assisted prostate cancer surgery performed by skilled surgeons who use the revolutionary Da Vinci robot surgical system.  The center also provides comprehensive education and counseling for patients and their primary physicians in prostate cancer treatment.

South Nassau is the only hospital on Long Island with a Gamma Knife and the new Varian Novalis Tx. To schedule a consultation or for more information about South Nassau’s Cancer Program, call 516-632-3350, or visit

# # #

South Nassau Communities Hospital is one of the region’s largest hospitals, with 435 beds, more than 875 physicians and 2,800 employees. Located in Oceanside, NY, the hospital is an acute-care, not-for-profit teaching hospital that provides state-of-the-art care in cardiac, oncologic, orthopedic, bariatric, pain management, mental health and emergency services. In addition to its extensive outpatient specialty centers, South Nassau provides emergency and elective angioplasty and is the only hospital on Long Island with the Novalis Tx and Gamma Knife radiosurgery technologies. South Nassau is a designated Stroke Center by the New York State Department of Health and Comprehensive Community Cancer Center by the American College of Surgeons and is recognized as a Bariatric Surgery Center of Excellence by the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. For more information, visit


WHEN Elizabeth Walker suddenly started speaking gibberish it was blamed on stress and hormones. “There was a dysfunction between my brain and my speech. I wanted to say ‘I’m going to get a cup of tea’ but a completely different word such as pumpkin would come out,” she says.
Elizabeth, now 33, had suffered from headaches and migraines for years but concern about her “funny turns” led her to visit her GP.
“He thought it was because my hormones hadn’t settled down after having my boys,” she says. “Jack was four months old and William was not yet two.”
The doctor suggested Elizabeth, from Sidcup in Kent, wait a year for her hormones to stabilise. 
However she grew increasingly fearful about losing her ability to speak properly while responsible for two children and running her career consultancy business.
A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed the problem: a spaghetti-like tangle of abnormal blood vessels in the area of the brain which controls speech and memory. These blood vessels, known as an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), lack capillaries to slow the blood allowing it to travel around the AVM with explosive speed, putting veins at risk of breaking and leading to stroke and brain damage.

Asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss caused by vestibular schwannoma: Characteristic imaging features before and after treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery

Nicholas Krause, MD; Kathleen Tozer Fink, MD; and James R. Fink, MD
Citation: Krause N, Fink KT, Fink JR. Asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss caused by vestibular schwannoma: Characteristic imaging features before and after treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery. Radiology Case Reports. [Online] 2010;5:437.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License, which permits reproduction and distribution, provided the original work is properly cited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted.

Abbreviations: CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; CPA, cerebellopontine angle; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; IAC, internal auditory cnal; VS, vestibular schwannoma
The authors are all in the Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA. Contact Dr. Fink at

Advanced Treatment of Brain Disorders

Brain disorders are some of the most difficult medical disorders to treat. Nike Air Force 1 Shoes Because of the delicate nature of things like brain tumors and other intracranial disorders, invasive surgery procedures that attempt to rectify them are often very dangerous and not always one hundred percent successful. In recent decades, highly effective alternatives to invasive surgery have been developed, the most advanced of which is gamma knife radiosurgery. Today, many of this country’s brain tumor clinics are employing gamma knife technology to treat brain disorders.

The gamma knife was invented in 1967, by the Swedish neurologist Lars Leksell. Since then, it has been much improved by the addition of modern computer technology. Gamma knife treatments use computerized treatment planning software that makes it possible for doctors to locate and irradiate small tumors and areas of disorder in the brain with incredible accuracy. About 200 beams of highly focused radiation are shot to the target area during gamma knife treatments. The precision of the gamma knife device is so exact that surrounding tissue is left undamaged.

How the Gamma Knife Works
The gamma knife employs a method called stereotactic radiosurgery, in which a target area is simultaneously and three-dimensionally treated with 200 beams of radiation

Leksell Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ - Licensing Guidance 10 CFR

Perfexion™ is regulated under 10 CFR Part 35, Subpart K, “Other Medical Uses ..... “For use of the Leksell Gamma Knife ® Perfexion™ unit , we will meet the ...
perfexion-guidance.pdf - Search leksell gamma knife® perfexion™ licensing guidance

Why Opt for Gamma Knife Surgery?

By : Fabiola Groshan

Opting for gamma knife treatment instead of conventional brain surgery offers patients many benefits, chief among them include safety, precision and the fact that there are no long recovery periods associated with gamma knife treatments. Thanks in great part to the development of its highly advanced computer technology, the gamma knife procedure remains the most effective form of acoustic neuroma radiosurgery and trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery as well as one of the safest ways of dealing with benign brain tumors. To date, approximately half a million people have been successfully treated using gamma knife surgery, with no reports of death or serious complications.

The Advantages of a Non-invasive Surgery

The gamma knife is a non-invasive surgical instrument that uses highly focused beams of radiation rather than scalpels to treat brain tumors and other disorders. The advanced technology of the gamma knife procedure enables doctors to aim over 200 precise beams of radiation directly to the target area without affecting surrounding healthy brain tissue.

Since no incisions are made on the patient during gamma knife surgery, there is no pain induced and no complicated recovery period associated with the treatment. The success rate of the gamma knife treatment is truly unprecedented, with an average local control rate of brain tumors exceeding 85%. Part of what makes the procedure so effective is the comprehensive method through which the doctors in charge prepare for the surgery. A panel of neurosurgeons, nurses and radiation specialists conduct extensive tests to assess the condition of the patient and the disorder being treated. Data is gathered via advanced brain imaging methods and used to guide the gamma knife device.

High Precision Radiosurgery

The computer-aided planning allows for a high degree of precision. Thousands of radiation beams can be aimed with an accuracy of more than .5mm. On its own, each beam is too weak to affect the patient’s healthy brain tissue, but when they intersect at the desired target area, they combine to create an ultra fine radiation scalpel that avoids any damage to surrounding healthy tissue.


Gamma knife treatments usually cost about half as much as conventional open surgery procedures. This makes them highly cost effective, especially considering that they are usually fully reimbursed by most insurance providers. Additionally, all costs associated with recovery care and post-surgery therapies are eliminated, as gamma knife procedures require little of either.

Author Resource:- For more resources regarding gamma knife treatment or even about acoustic neuroma radiosurgery and especially about trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery please review these pages.

What are the Risks of Gamma Knife Surgery?

By: Groshan Fabiola

Gamma knife surgery is today the most trusted and advanced form of radiosurgery available. Trigeminal neuralgia and acoustic neuroma gamma knife treatments have proven to be highly effective and precise, as well as relatively quick and pain free. While some treatments work in conjunction with traditional surgery, many gamma knife treatments are completely non-invasive, meaning no actual incisions are made into the patient’s head. Rather, the gamma knife works by aiming approximately 200 beams of highly focused radiation into a single target area of the brain.

As with any type of surgical operation, there are some risks and side effects associated with gamma knife treatments, though they are not as serious and occur far less frequently than with other more conventional types of brain surgery. Some of the negative side effects include things like nausea and headaches, both of which are usually related to the application and removal of the head brace required for the operation of the gamma knife’s guiding system. Risks include possible, though temporary, loss of hearing and a deterioration of the patient’s balance, as well as deterioration of vision. Temporary imbalance, numbness and physical weakness are also side effects that can occur as a result of gamma knife treatments.

These complications and risks are usually minimal, however, and patients rarely report having any major negative effects as a result of gamma knife surgery. Many of the risks associated with the treatment come not as a result of the procedure itself but are rather associated with the condition that is being treated. In order to maintain a high level of patient care and reduce the chances of negative effects, most gamma knife centers go to great lengths to ensure that patients are ready and qualified to undergo the treatment.

Gamma knife patient selection is done by a multidisciplinary panel of neurosurgeons and radiation specialists that study the patient’s particular condition and come up with a detailed plan, using diagnostic data from patient examinations and imaging studies to assess the patient’s general health. Patients who’ve undergone other brain disorder treatment methods, such as chemotherapy or open brain surgery are still safely eligible for gamma knife surgery. Overall, gamma knife surgery is among the safest forms of brain disorder treatment methods. The use of the gamma knife for trigeminal neuralgia and other brain disorder treatments remains the quickest and most efficient option.

Article Source:

For more resources regarding gamma knife surgery or even about acoustic neuroma gamma knife and especially about gamma knife trigeminal neuralgia please review these pages.

Physicians See New Benefits, Treatment Opportunities for Brain Cancer with Elekta's Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

North American installations grow as recent innovations reinforce Perfexion as a critical tool for treating brain metastases

July 1, 2010 9:00 AM EDT
ATLANTA, July 1 /PRNewswire/ -- The refinements in Elekta's Gamma Knife® surgery technology that created the fifth generation Leksell Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ are radically changing the approach to treating brain metastases and other brain disorders. With Perfexion, physicians are applying therapy to multiple metastases (mets) in a single session, treating more non-malignant targets located in critical areas and planning increasingly tailored plans to meet individual patient needs. The result has been an upsurge in Perfexion sales and upgrades from the previous model Leksell Gamma Knife® 4C in North America.

Elekta recently announced its fourth quarter orders for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion, including Methodist Hospital (San Antonio), Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Center (Houston), New York-Presbyterian Hospital and Swedish Cancer Institute (Seattle).

"Since the introduction of Perfexion, 40 percent of Gamma Knife systems in North America are, or will soon be, Perfexion systems," says Thomas McKay, Senior Marketing Manager for Elekta Neuroscience. "The benchmark upon which all other radiosurgery systems are measured, the capabilities of Perfexion continue to evolve, fusing the skills of the clinician with the science of radiosurgery."

Gamma Knife Perfexion surgery faster, more efficient, customizable

This year, more than 1.5 million people in the United States will develop some form of cancer. Of those, it is estimated about 30 percent will develop brain metastases.(1) A 2009 study shows that patients who received a combined therapy of stereotactic radiosurgery and Whole Brain Radiation Therapy to treat one to three brain mets had more than two times the risk of developing learning and memory problems than those treated with stereotactic radiosurgery alone.(2) With respect to accuracy, dose conformity and patient comfort, Elekta introduced a number of innovations that extend the capabilities of Perfexion—particularly for patients with multiple brain metastases.

Recently, Elekta added the ability to non-invasively treat brain targets over multiple sessions using Perfexion. The Extend program enables clinicians to treat—over two to five radiosurgery sessions—patients with larger tumors or lesions close to critical structures located in the brain, skull base and in other head/neck regions. Extend non-invasively immobilizes the patient's head, making hypofractionated Gamma Knife surgery practical for these cases.

The University of Virginia (UVA) was the first U.S. center to acquire Extend. "We wanted to expand the versatility of Perfexion to allow multi-session radiosurgery," says Jason Sheehan, M.D., Ph.D., and co-director of UVA's Gamma Knife Center. "Extend enabled us to treat lesions immediately adjacent to critical structures, such as the optic apparatus, in addition to targets too large for single session radiosurgery. It also created the potential to treat brain metastases, which in many cases may not require the precision provided by a very rigid frame."

New GammaPlan® software reinforces the ability of the Perfexion system to provide an individualized treatment. In brain metastases cases, for example, clinicians can design a therapy that accounts for the patient's number, size and location of mets and fine-tune the dose for optimal tumor targeting and avoidance of normal tissues. Planning time has been reduced to enable plan development in less than an hour, while the median reduction in setup time has been reduced by 53 minutes per patient. (3)

The advantages of Perfexion were widely reported at the Leksell Gamma Knife Society meeting in Athens, Greece. Interviews and results of some of the clinical findings are available online at

(1) American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2010. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2010.

(2) Chang, E. L. et al. Neurocognition in patients with brain metastases treated with radiosurgery or radiosurgery plus whole-brain irradiation: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncology. 10, 1037–1044; 2009.

(3) Niranjan, et al. Efficiency and Dose Planning Comparison Between the Perfexion and 4C Leksell Gamma Knife Units. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. 87, 191-198; 2009.

About Elekta

Elekta is a human care company pioneering significant innovations and clinical solutions for treating cancer and brain disorders. The company develops sophisticated, state-of-the-art tools and treatment planning systems for radiation therapy and radiosurgery, as well as workflow enhancing software systems across the spectrum of cancer care.

Stretching the boundaries of science and technology, providing intelligent and resource-efficient solutions that offer confidence to both healthcare providers and patients, Elekta aims to improve, prolong and even save patient lives, making the future possible today.

Today, Elekta solutions in oncology and neurosurgery are used in over 5,000 hospitals globally, and every day more than 100,000 patients receive diagnosis, treatment or follow-up with the help of a solution from the Elekta Group.

Elekta employs around 2,500 employees globally. The corporate headquarter is located in Stockholm, Sweden, and the company is listed on the Nordic Exchange under the ticker EKTAb. For more information about Elekta, please visit


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